Figure 3

Intracellular recording in freely moving small animals.

Shown at the top is a photograph of a motorized intracellular microdrive.  We have used this device to record from a variety of brain regions including a premotor forebrain nucleus in the songbird (Long et al., 2010) as well as from the hippocampus of the mouse (D. English, D. Vallentin, G. Buzsaki, and M. Long, unpublished observation).